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Publications

IAB produces and offers know-how, e.g. medical law, scales for rating movement disorders and therapy effects, reference books, videos, virtual products and guidelines.

Just Arrived

» Botulinum toxin therapy in the SARS‑CoV‑2 pandemic: patient perceptions from a German cohort: Dressler D, Adib Saberi F

The SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic has provoked drastic countermeasures including shutdowns of public services. We wanted to describe the efects of a 6 week shutdown of a large German botulinum toxin (BT) outpatient clinics on patients and their well-being. ...

» PäPKi® for Relaxation and Regeneration with Demand-Oriented Nutrition

The PäPKi® method diagnoses and treats functional developmental disorders in babies and children (ICD10: F80.-83.) as well as functional disorders in adulthood.

» Here we present more short films about PäPKi®

The PäPKi® method diagnoses and treats functional developmental disorders in babies and children (ICD10: F80.-83.) as well as functional disorders in adulthood. ...

» Introductory Chapter: Botulinum Toxin Type A Therapy in Dystonia and Spasticity – What are Current Practical Applications?: Raymond L. Rosales and Dirk Dressler

Published in the book: Botulinum Toxin Therapy Manual for Dystonia and Spasticity

Medical Law

» Rechtsreport: Bei Fristüberschreitung gilt die Genehmigung als erteilt

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» (Deutsch) Antrag auf Kostenerstattung für die Behandlung mit Botulinum Toxin im Off Label Use

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» (Deutsch) § 2 SGB V Leistungen

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» (Deutsch) Änderungen im Patientenrechtegesetz für Patientenanträge

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» Guidelines 2013 on Good Distribution Practice of Medicinal Products for Human Use

  INFORMATION FROM EUROPEAN UNION INSTITUTIONS, BODIES, OFFICES AND AGENCIES OTHER ACTS Guidelines of 7 March 2013 on Good Distribution Practice of Medicinal Products for Human Use (2013/C 68/01) English Version: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2013:068:0001:0014:EN:PDF German Version: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2013:068:0001:0014:DE:PDF Source: Official Journal of the European Union

» (Deutsch) BEANTRAGUNG VON LEISTUNGEN IM OFF-LABEL-VERFAHREN: VERÄNDERUNGEN DURCH DAS NEUE PATIENTENRECHTEGESETZ

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» (Deutsch) GBA zu Spasmodischer Dysphonie

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» (Deutsch) Aktion Hartmannbund Niedersachsen

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» (Deutsch) Verbot der Unterstützung von Kongressteilnahmen durch die Industrie?

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» (Deutsch) BUNDESSOZIALGERICHT Urteil vom 8.11.2011, B 1 KR 19/10 R

(Deutsch) BUNDESSOZIALGERICHT Urteil vom 8.11.2011, B 1 KR 19/10 R Krankenversicherung - Verordnung eines Arzneimittels während und außerhalb eines arzneimittelrechtlichen Zulassungsverfahrens jenseits seiner bestehenden Zulassung nur bei wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen über Nutzen und Risiken des Mittels aufgrund von Phase III-Studien - Bindung von Hochschulambulanzen an die im ambulanten Bereich geltenden leistungsrechtlichen Begrenzungen des Anspruchs der Versicherten auf Versorgung mit Fertigarzneimitteln - kein Ersatz der Zulassungsentscheidung durch die bloße Möglichkeit einer Zulassung im Verfahren nach § 25b Abs 2 AMG 1976

Guidlines

» International Guidelines for the Treatment of Huntington’s Disease: European Network of Huntington’s Disease

The European Huntington's Disease Network (EHDN) commissioned an international task force to provide global evidence-based recommendations for everyday clinical practice for treatment of Huntington's disease (HD). ....

» Evidence-based guidelines: ParkinsonNet

To provide decision support for everyday clinical practice, we develop evidence-based guidelines for Parkinson’s disease using international standards including AGREE. ....

» Guidelines 2013 on Good Distribution Practice of Medicinal Products for Human Use

  INFORMATION FROM EUROPEAN UNION INSTITUTIONS, BODIES, OFFICES AND AGENCIES OTHER ACTS Guidelines of 7 March 2013 on Good Distribution Practice of Medicinal Products for Human Use (2013/C 68/01) English Version: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2013:068:0001:0014:EN:PDF German Version: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2013:068:0001:0014:DE:PDF Source: Official Journal of the European Union

Consensus Papers

» Consensus Guidelines for Botulinum Toxin Therapy: General Algorithms and Dosing Tables for Dystonia and Spasticy: Dressler D et al.

Abstract: Botulinum toxin (BT) therapy is a complex and highly individualised therapy defined by treatment algorithms and injection schemes describing its target muscles and their dosing. ...

» The updated European Consensus 2009 on the use of Botulinum toxin for children with cerebral palsy: Heinen F et al.

Abstract: An interdisciplinary European group of clinical experts in the field of movement disordersand experienced Botulinum toxin users has updated the consensus for the use of Botu-linum toxin in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP). ...

» Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy in Germany: Proceeding of IAB – Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders Consensus Meeting: Dressler D et al.

Abstract: Continuous intrathecal Baclofen application (ITB) through an intracorporeal pump system is widely used in adults and children with spasticity of spinal and supraspinal origin. Currently, about 1200 new ITB pump systems are implanted in Germany each year. ....

» Strategies for Treatment of Dystonia: Special Task Force on Treatment of Dystonia formed by IAB – Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders: Dressler D et al.

Abstract: Treatment of dystonias is generally symptomatic. To produce sufficient therapy effects, therefore, frequently a multimodal and interdisciplinary therapeutic approach becomes necessary, combining botulinum toxin therapy, deep brain stimulation, oral antidystonic drugs, adjuvant drugs and rehabilitation therapy including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, re-training, speech therapy, psychotherapy and sociotherapy ....

» Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Treatment of Spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis: Review and Recommendations of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders Task Force: Dressler D et al.

Abstract Botulinum toxin (BT) therapy is an established treatment of spasticity due to stroke. For multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity this is not the case. IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders formed a task force to explore the use of BT therapy for treatment of MS spasticity. ....

» Defining Spasticity: A New Approach Considering Current Movement Disorders Terminology and Botulinumtoxin Therapy Review and Recommendations of IAB – Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders Task Force: Dressler D et al.

Abstract: Spasticity is a symptom occurring in many neurological conditions including stroke, multiple sclerosis, hypoxic brain damage, traumatic brain injury, tumours and heredodegenerative diseases. ....

» Botulinum Toxin Assessment, Intervention and After-Care for Lower Limb Spasticity in Children With Cerebral Palsy – International Consensus Statement: Love C et al.

Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) has been used in association with other interventions in the management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) for almost two decades. ....

» Review article – The updated European Consensus 2009 on the use of Botulinum toxin for children with cerebral palsy: Heinen F et al.

a b s t r a c t An interdisciplinary European group of clinical experts in the field of movement disordersand experienced Botulinum toxin users has updated the consensus for the use of Botu-linum toxin in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP). ....

Key Papers

» (Deutsch) Aktion Hartmannbund Niedersachsen

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» The Pathogenesis of Dystonia – Past, Present and Future: Jinnah HA

Goals for this presentation: Genetics, Anatomy, Physiology

» Botulinum toxin therapy in patients with oral anticoagulation – is it safe?: Schader C et al.

Abstract When used therapeutically, botulinum toxin (BT) has to be injected into its target tissues. ...

» TRANSLATIONAL BOTULINUM TOXIN RESEARCH: COMPARING BT DRUGS – Dressler D

3rd Chinese Botulinum Toxin Forum Back to Basic 2018

» Cannabis – an Innovative Opportunity or a Bubble?

Marijuana - is a new billion dollar market emerging?

» New DBS Brochure Produced by Dystonie-und-Du e. V. (DyD)

The brochure can be ordered from DyD for a fee of € 2.         Selbsthilfeorganisation Dystonie-und-Du e. V. Volker Kreiss Madenburgweg 7 b 76187 Karlsruhe E-Mail: volker.kreiss@dysd.de Homepage: www.dysd.de

» Systematic Review of Rehabilitation in Focal Dystonias: Classification and Recommendations: 2017

(Deutsch) Background: Rehabilitation interventions are rarely utilized as an alternative or adjunct therapy forfocal dystonias. Reasons for limited utilization are unknown, but lack of conclusive evidence of effectivenessis likely a crucial factor.

» Abstracts of Scientific Papers and Posters Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Academic Physiatrists Medical Student Category Award Winner TUNING ALGORITHMS FOR CONTROL INTERFACES FOR USERS WITH UPPER LIMB IMPAIRMENTS: Zhou L

Objective: It is estimated that 4 million Americans with disabilities living in community settings use wheeled mobility devices and millions more access computers. Approximately 40% of these people cannot operate these devices adequately due to diminished upper-limb motor control, sensory limitations, and cognitive...

» Management of Spasticity Associated Pain with Botulinum Toxin A: Wissel J et al.

Abstract: Lesions of the central nervous system often result in an upper motor neuron syndromeincluding spasticity, paresis with pyramidal signs, and painful spasms. Pharmacologicaltreatment with oral antispasticity drugs is frequently associated with systemic side effects whichlimit their clinical use....

» Intrathecal Baclofen for Spastic Hypertonia From Stroke Editorial Comment: Meythaler JM et al.

Background and Purpose: We sought to determine whether continuous intrathecal delivery of baclofen can effectivelydecrease spastic hypertonia due to stroke...

» Pharmacologic Management of Spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis: Pappalardo A et al.

Abstract: Spasticity is very common in people with multi-ple sclerosis (MS). It is estimated that between 40 and60% of all patients are affected. ....

» Best Clinical Practice in Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Strobl W et al.

Abstract: Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is considered a safe and effective therapy forchildren with cerebral palsy (CP), especially in the hands of experienced injectors and forthe majority of children. ....

» Botulinum Toxin Type a for Upper Limb Spasticity Following Stroke: An Open-Label Study With Individualised, Flexible Injection Regimens: Slawek J et al.

Abstract: Current antispastic medications are unsatisfacto-ry for spasticity treatment,but botulinum toxin type A(BTX-A) shows promise as a new therapeutic option. ....

» Treatments for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review: Beard S et al.

Objectives: To identify the drug treatments currently available for the management of spasticity and pain inmultiple sclerosis (MS), and to evaluate their clinical andcost-effectiveness ....

» International Neurology – A Clinical Approach: Editors R P LISAK et al.

Preface The idea for this text ,International Neurology: A Clinical Approach, grew out of the involvement of the editors at the first two international neurology meetings held in Vietnam. ....

» Systemic Adverse Events Following Botulinum Toxin A Therapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Naidu K et al.

AIM We studied the incidence of incontinence and respiratory eventsin children withcerebralpalsy who received injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). ....

» Low Prevalence of Botulinum Toxin-A Adverse Effects: Good Safety Profile or Underreporting?: Aimer O et al.

Introduction: The incidence of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections related adverse effects (AE) is relatively high in literature. Many of injections are carried out yearly in our Physical andRehabilitation Medicine (PRM) unit, however only 4 adverse effects have been reported since 2010 ....

» Split-Screen Video Demonstration of Sonography-Guided Muscle Identification and Injection of Botulinum Toxin: Fietzek U M et al.

Abstract: A standardization of injection procedures for the various botulinum toxin (BoNT) indications has not been achieved to date. ....

» High dose botulinum toxin A for the treatment of lower extremity hypertonicity in children with cerebral palsy: Willis AW et al.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the safety profile of high dose (15–25 units/kg) of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and increased lower extremitymuscle tone. ....

» A systematic review on the diagnosis and treatment of primary (idiopathic) dystonia and dystonia plus syndromes: report of an EFNS/MDS-ES Task Force: Albanese A M et al.

To review the literature on primary dystonia and dystonia plus and to provide evidence-based recommendations. Primary dystonia and dystonia plus are chronic and often disabling conditions with a widespread spectrum mainly in young people. ....

» The management of spastic equinus in cerebral palsy: Cobeljic G et al.

Abstract: Equinus of the foot is the most common deformity in children with spasticcerebral palsy. Patients with cerebral palsy who are able to walk may havedifferent problems because of an equinus deformity. ....

» Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of lower-limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: Camargo CHF et al.

Abstract – We evaluated the safety ans effectiveness of botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) in the treatment of spasticity in 20 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). ....

» Randomized trial of botulinum toxin to prevent pes cavus progression in pediatric charcot-marie-tooth disease type 1A: Burns J et al.

Abstract: Pes cavus in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type1A (CMT1A) is thought to be due to muscle imbalance of thelower leg. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) can modify foot de-formity in other conditions of muscle imbalance. ....

» Modified constraint-induced movement therapy or bimanual occupational therapy following injection of Botulinum toxin-A to improve bimanual performance in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial methods paper: Hoare BJ et al.

Background: Use of Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) for treatment of upper limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsyhas become routine clinical practice in many paediatric treatment centres worldwide. ...

» Indications and effects of botulinum toxin A for obstetric brachial plexus injury: a systematic literature review: Gobets D et al.

AIM: To give an overview of indications for the use of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) treatment forchildren with obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI), and topresent the best availableevidence of the effectiveness of this treatment. ...

» A randomized controlled trial comparing botulinum toxin A dosage in the upper extremity of children with spasticity: Kawamura A et al.

This study compared the effects of low and high doses of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) to improve upper extremityfunction. ...

» Can botulinum toxin type A injection technique influence the clinical outcome of patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity? A randomized controlled trial comparing manual needle placement and ultrasound-guided injection techniques: Santamato A et al.

Background: Botulinum toxin type A is a first-line treatment for post-stroke focal spasticity, and the accuracy in delivering the toxin to the target muscles may influence the treatment outcome. Our aim was to compare the reduction of spasticity and the related finger position at rest improvement in post-stroke patients treated with botulinum toxin type A in upper limb muscles using ultrasound guidance and manual needle placement. ...

» Botulinum toxin type A in the management of oromandibular dystonia and bruxism: Tinter R and Jankovic J

Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) refers to involuntary spasms of masticatory,lingual and pharyngeal muscles. ...

» A systematic review on the diagnosis and treatment of primary (idiopathic) dystonia and dystonia plus syndromes: report of an EFNS/MDS-ES Task Forcer: Albanese A et al.

To review theliterature on primarydystoniaanddystoniaplusandtoprovideevidence-based recommendations. ...

» A French observational study of botulinum toxin use in the management of children with cerebral palsy: BOTULOSCOPE: Chale´ at-Valayer E et al.

Background: Dystonia and spasticity are common symptoms in children with Cerebral Palsy(CP), whose management is a challenge to overcome in order to enable the harmonized development of motor function during growth. ...

» Split-screen video demonstration of sonography-guided muscle identification and injection of botulinum toxin: Fietzek UM et al.

Abstract: A standardization of injection procedures forthe various botulinum toxin (BoNT) indications has notbeen achieved to date. ...

» Upper Extremity Spasticity in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled Study of the Short-Term Outcomes of Treatment With Botulinum A Toxin: Koman LA et al.

Purpose: Botulinum A toxin (BoNT-A) injections are used widely to manage lower extremityspasticity in children with cerebral palsy. ...

» High dose botulinum toxin A for the treatment of lower extremity hypertonicity in children with cerebral palsy: Willis AW et al.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the safety profile of high dose (15–25 units/kg) of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and increased lower extremity muscle tone. ...

» Treatment of adductor spasticity with BTX-A in children with CP: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study: Mall V et al.

Adductor spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) impairsmotor function and development. ...

» Low Prevalence of Botulinum Toxin-A Adverse Effects: Good Safety Profile or Underreporting?: Aimer O et al.

Introduction: The incidence of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections related adverse effects(AE) is relatively high in literature. Many of injections are carried out yearly in our Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) unit, however only 4 adverse effects have been reported since 2010. ...

» GPi-DBS in Huntington’s disease: Results on motor function and cognition in a 72-year-old case: Fasano A et al.

Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) produces debilitating motor abnormalities that are poorly responsive to medicaltherapy. ...

» Systemic adverse events following botulinum toxin A therapy in children with cerebral palsy: Naidu K et al.

AIM: We studied the incidence of incontinence and respiratory events in children with cerebral palsy who received injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). ...

» Botulinum neurotoxin-A in idiopathic chondrolysis: a reportof two cases: Khoshhal KI et al.

Two cases of idiopathic chondrolysis were treated bybotulinum neurotoxin-A injections, with a favorableoutcome. ...

» Botulinum toxin type A in the management of oromandibular dystonia and bruxism: Tintner R and Jankovic J

Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) refers to involuntary spasms of masticatory,lingual and pharyngeal muscles. ...

» Two-year placebo-controlled trial of botulinum toxin A for leg spasticity in cerebral palsy: Moore AP et al.

Background: The controlled evidence favoring botulinum toxin A (BtA) treatment for spasticity incerebral palsy is based on short-term studies. ...

» Constraint-induced movement therapy in the treatment of the upper limb in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a Cochrane systematic review: Wasiak J et al.

Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a central nervous system deficit resulting from a non-progressive lesion in the developing brain. ...

» Pharmacologic management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: Pappalardo A et al.

Abstract: Spasticity is very common in people with multi-ple sclerosis (MS). ...

» Split-screen video demonstration of sonography-guided muscle identification and injection of botulinum toxin: Fietzek UM et al.

Abstract: A standardization of injection procedures for the various botulinum toxin (BoNT) indications has not been achieved to date. ...

» GRIN: “GRoup versus INdividual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: an assessor-masked randomised comparison trial”: study protocol: Thomas RE et al.

Background: Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. ...

» Botulinum toxin (Dysport) treatment of the spastic gastrocnemius muscle in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized trial comparing two injection volumes: Hu GC et al.

Objective: To compare the effect of equivalent doses in two different volumesof botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) on gastrocnemius spasticity. ...

» Modified constraint-induced movement therapy or bimanual occupational therapy following injection of Botulinum toxin-A to improve bimanual performance in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial methods paper: Hoare BJ et al.

Objective: To compare the outcome of manual needle placement, electrical stimulation and ultrasonography-guided techniques for botulinum toxin injection into the forearm muscles of adults with arm spasticity....

» Adhesive taping vs. daily manual muscle stretching and splinting after botulinum toxin type A injection for wrist and fingers spastic overactivity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial: Santamato A et al.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of two procedures increasing the botulinum toxin type A effect for wrist and finger flexor spasticity after stroke. ...

» Efficacy of Therapeutic Ultrasoundand Transcutaneous Electrical NerveStimulation Compared With BotulinumToxin Type A in the Treatment of SpasticEquinus in Adults With Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial: Picelli A et al.

Background: Therapeutic ultrasound and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) have been described asbeing effective in the treatment of spasticity. ...

» Botulinum toxin assessment, intervention and after-care for lower limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: international consensus statement: Love SC et al.

Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) has been used in association with other interventions in the management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) foralmost two decades. ...

» Botulinum neurotoxin type A injections reduce spasticity in mild to moderate hereditary spastic paraplegia- Report of 19 cases: Hecht MJ et al.

Abstract: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is characterizedby lower extremity spasticity. Symptomatic therapy generallyincludes physical therapy and oral antispastic agents, in se-lected cases intrathecal baclofen. ...

» Adductor release and chemodenervation in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study in 16 children: Khot A et al.

Purpose: A pilot study with short-term outcomes of acombinedsurgicalandmedicalinterventionformanagementof generalized lower limb spasticity, hip displacement andcontractures of adductors in children with bilateral spasticcerebral palsy. ...

» A Randomized Controlled Trial of Selective Neurotomy Versus Botulinum Toxin for Spastic Equinovarus Foot After Stroke: Bollens B et al.

Introduction: Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and is amajor cause of handicap worldwide. ...

» Indications and effects of botulinum toxin A for obstetric brachial plexus injury: a systematic literature review: Gobets D et al.

AIM: To give an overview of indications for the use of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) treatment for children with obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI), and to present the best availableevidence of the effectiveness of this treatment. ...

» Muscle Activation Patterns When Passively Stretching Spastic Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Bar-On L et al.

Abstract: The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscleis the most widely accepted. ...

» Splint: the efficacy of orthotic management in rest to prevent equinus in children with cerebral palsy, a randomised controlled trial: Maas JC et al.

Background: Range of motion deficits of the lower extremity occur in about the half of the children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Over time, these impairments can cause joint deformities and deviations in the children’s gaitpattern, leading to limitations in moblity. ...

» Gait analysis to assess the effects of botulinum toxin type A treatment in cerebral palsy: an open-label study in 10 children with equinus gait pattern: Wissel J et al.

Abstract: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX‐A) injections induce a dose‐related decrease in muscle tone and increased joint mobility in adults with spasticity and children with cerebral palsy. ...

» The effects of botulinum toxin type A on improvement and dynamic spastic equinus correction in children with cerebral palsy – preliminary results: Colovic H et al.

Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of non-progressive nervous sys-tem disorders with musculoskeletal manifestation due to an early braindevelopmental disorder[1]. ...

» AACPDM systematic review of the effectiveness of therapy for children with cerebral palsy following botulinum toxin-A injections: Lannin N et al.

Abtract: The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of therapy interventions on improving outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have received botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections to either upper or lower limb muscles. ...

» A French observational study of botulinum toxin use in the management of children with cerebral palsy: BOTULOSCOPE: Chale´at-Valayer E et al.

Background: Dystonia and spasticity are common symptoms in children with Cerebral Palsy(CP), whose management is a challenge to overcome in order to enable the harmonizeddevelopment of motor function during growth. ...

» Clinical assessment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: A critical review of available instruments: Scholtes VAB et al.

This study reviews the instruments used for the clinical assessment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy, andevaluates their compliance with the concept of spasticity, defined as a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone topassive stretch. ...

» Effects of early spasticity treatment on children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a preliminary study: Zonto MB et al.

Objective: To compare motor and functional performance of two groups of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP). Only the studygroup (SG) received early treatment of spasticity with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BXT-A). ...

» Time Course Analysis of the Effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Elbow Spasticity Based on Biomechanic and Electromyographic Parameters: Lee HM et al.

Objective: To quantify changes of elbow spasticity overtime after botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection in theupper extremity of stroke patients. ...

» Botox – the magical spell of denstry: A literature review: Lova F, Ahsan A

Introduction: Botox (botulinum toxin-BTX or botulinum neurotoxin) is a protease exotoxin released by Clostridiumbotulinum, which is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium. ...

» Botulinum toxin in children with cerebral palsy: Singhi P, Ray M

Abstract: Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin that blocks the synaptic release of acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve terminals mainly at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in irreversible loss of motor end plates. ...

» Botulinum toxin type A in the management of oromandibular dystonia and bruxism: Tintner R, Jankovic J

Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) refers to involuntary spasms of masticatory,lingual and pharyngeal muscles. ...

» Dose-Dependent Response to Intramuscular Botulinum ToxinType A for Upper-Limb Spasticity in Patients After a Stroke: Childers MK et al.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that intramuscular (IM)botulinum toxin type A (BTX) reduces excessive muscle tonein a dose-dependent manner in the elbow, wrist, and fingers of patients who experience spasticity after a stroke. ......

» Does loss of spasticity matter? A 10-year follow-up after selective dorsal rhizotomy in cerebral palsy: Tedroff K et al.

AIM: The aim of this study was toevaluate the long-term effectsof selective dorsal rhizotomy(SDR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). ...

» Low-dose/high-concentration localized botulinum toxin A improves upper limb movement and function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: Lowe K et al.

The objective was to determine the effects of low-dose, high-concentration, dual localized botulinum toxin A (BTX-A)injections on upper limb movement quality and function. Studydesign was an evaluator-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. ...

» Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscletightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series: Bhave A et al.

Background: Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris musclecontractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing toimprove despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. ...

» Influence of botulinum toxin therapy on postural control and lower limb intersegmental coordination in children with spastic cerebral palsy: Degelaen M et al.

Abstract: Botulinum toxin injections may significantly improve lower limb kinematics ingait of children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy. ...

» Analgesic effects of botulinum toxin A: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial: Barwood S et al.

Postoperative pain in children with spastic cerebral palsy(CP) is often attributed to muscle spasm and is difficult tomanage using opiates and benzodiazepines. ...

» Botulinum toxin A injections do not improve surface EMG patterns during gait in children with cerebral palsy – A randomized controlled study: van der Houwen LEE et al.

Abstract Children with cerebral palsy who walk with knee flexion during midstance are treated with intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) to prevent them from potential deterioration and to improve their mobility. ...

» Botulinum toxin A and upper limb functional skills in hemiparetic cerebral palsy: a randomized trial in children receiving intensive therapy: Speth LAWM et al.

The objective of this study was to determine whether the useof intramuscular botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) increases upper limb function and skills in the context of a specific therapy programme in children with hemiparetic cerebralpalsy. ...

» Goal attainment following upper-limb botulinum toxin-A injections: are we facilitating achievement of client-centred goals?: Nott MT et al.

Objectives: Evaluate upper-limb goal attainment following botulinum toxin-A, map goals to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and explore associations between client goals, clinical indicators of spasticity and the Botulinum Toxin-A injection strategy adopted by the treating physician. ...

» Does Botulinum Toxin A Combined with Bracing Prevent Hip Displacement in Children with Cerebral Palsy and “Hips at Risk”? A Randomized, Controlled Trial: Graham HK et al.

Background: Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood physical disability in developed countries, affecting two children per 1000 live births. ...

» Modification of altered ankle motor control after stroke using focal application of Botulinum toxin type A: Tang SF et al.

Study design: Blinded, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical trial. ...

» Combining botulinum toxin and phenol to manage spasticity in children: Gooch JL et al.

Objective: To describe the specific techniques and adverse reactions of using concurrent, multiple injections of both botulinum toxin and phenol to manage spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and other neurologic conditions. ...

» The effectiveness of therapy on outcome following (BoNT-A) injection for focal spasticity in adults with neurological conditions: A systematic review: Moore EJ et al.

Objective: To determine the independent effectiveness of adjunctive therapies when provided in conjunction with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT-A) injection for focal spasticity in adults with eurological conditions. ...

» Determining the technical and clinical factors associated with pain for children undergoing botulinum toxin injections under nitrous oxide and anesthetic cream: Brochard S et al.

Aims: To determine technical and clinical factors associated with pain when using ananalgesic protocol with 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen and anesthetic cream (lidocaine andprilocaine, Emla) for children with cerebral palsy undergoing botulinum toxin injections. ...

» Does Spasticity Reduction by Botulinum Toxin Type A Improve Upper Limb Functionality in Adult Post-Stroke Patients? A Systematic Review of Relevant Studies: Intiso D et al.

Objective: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) use reduces upper limb (UL) spasticity in stroke patients, but the effects on functional recovery remain uncertain. The aim of present review was to ascertain if the reduction of spasticity by use of BTX-A was linked to a functional gain of UL or in activity of daily living in post-stroke patients. ...

» Use of intrathecal baclofen therapy in ambulant children and adolescents with spasticity and dystonia of cerebral origin: a systematic review: Pin TW et al.

AIM: Studies on the use of intrathecal baclofen (ITB)for ambulant adultswithspasticity and ⁄ or dystonia of cerebral origin are scarce, and are even more limited for children and adolescents. This systematic review investigates the use of ITB to improve walking, transfer ability, and gross motor activities in ambulant children and adolescents with spasticity and ⁄ or dystonia of cerebral origin. ...

» Τreatment of spasticity and functional οutcome after botulinum toxin A (Botox®) injection in patients with neurologic lesions: Dionyssiotis Y et al.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consequences of neurologic lesions are underestimated when the Barthel Index (BI) is used to assess the clinical outcome of botulinum toxin injection. ...

» Evaluation of the effects of botulinum toxin A injections when used to improve ease of care and comfort in children with cerebral palsy whom are non-ambulant: a double blind randomized controlled trial: Thorley M et al.

Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) whom are non-ambulant are at risk of reduced quality of life and poor health status. ...

» Spasticity after stroke: Physiology, assessment and treatment: Thibaut A et al.

Background: Spasticity following a stroke occurs in about 30% of patients. The mechanisms underlying this disorder, however, are not well understood. ...

» Spasticity and Its Contribution to Hypertonia in Cerebral Palsy: Bar-On L et al.

Spasticity is considered an important neural contributor to muscle hypertonia in children with cerebral palsy (CP). ...

Publications of IAB Experts

» Adib Saberi, Fereshte MD, PhD

Publication List

» Altenmueller, Professor Eckart MD, PhD, MA

Publication List

» Bein-Wierzbinski, Wibke, PhD

Publication List

» Braehler, Gabriele

Publication List

» Dressler, Professor Dirk, MD, PhD

Publication List

» Frevert, Dr. rer. nat. Juergen, BSc

List of selected Publications

» Klietz, Martin, PhD

Publication List

» Hallett, Mark, MD

BIBLIOGRAPHY

» Montecucco, Prof. Cesare

List of Publications

» Pickenbrock, Heidrun, Dr. rer. biol. hum., MSc

Publication List

Reference Books

» Reference Books

Books of very experienced experts can be of tremendous benefit to therapists, but also to interested patients alike. A selection of reference books for patients and relatives as well as for physicians and health professionals are compiled here and offered for sale

Rating Scales

» Ratings Scales

The success of a complex therapy of chronic conditions with several therapists involved is decisively determined by the exact documentation of the processes and their effect. This documentation is in the hands of the patient between visits to the physician. IAB selects, produces and sells ratings scales for movement disorders and therapy effects. Some are […]

Videos

» Videos

Movement Disorders bear some of the most intriguing mysteries yet to discover. Our recorded experts are among the best known scientists working on these topics being right in the centre of it all. who could better answer our questions as? IAB produces videos with internationally outstanding scientists on the subject of movement disorders of great historical value.